Singapore Biodiversity Records. Currently, under this order, there is only one family that is Cynocephalidae which in Greek means "dog-head" (cyno refers to "dog" and cephalus refers to "head").Variegatus is from the Latin term variegare which means "various". Regarded as a gateway to Singapore’s nature reserves, MacRitchie Nature Trail & Reservoir Park’s forests boast rich biodiversity. Why is this relationship so important? Mammals of Sabah Part-2, habitat and ecology. The Sunda Colugo belongs to the tropical rainforests where there is heavy rainfall year round. (1990). Sabah Society, Kota Kinabalu. 9. Colugos are also known as ‘flying lemurs’ however, they neither fly nor are they lemurs! Source: NParks. Location, date and time : Singapore Island, Gallop Road, at the edge of the Singapore Botanic Gardens; 5 They are mainly nocturnal. 6th edition. Description: The Sunda flying lemur, also known as the Malayan flying lemur, is a species of colugo.Its a small size of species, head-body length of Sunda flying lemur is about 33 to 42 cm. Competition with the plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus) represents another challenge for this species. Climbing involves stretching out their two front legs and then bringing up their two back legs, which results in an awkward hopping. Mammalogy. Philippine colugos are of a different specie that can only be found in the southern islands of the Philippines, but their population is decreasing due to … Sarakadee Press, Bangkok. Observed on November 25th 2016 in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., New York. In diet selection: An interdisciplinary approach to foraging behaviour (Hughes, R.N.
 The selected food sources depend on the localities, habitat, vegetation types, and availability. 78 pp It was then put under the care of the CNR (Central Nature Reserve) volunteers. or "sloth fashion" - Anderson & Jones, 1984)11
National University of Singapor, Singapore. . This order contains only 1 family (Cynocephalidae) with 2 species - Philippines Colugo (Cynocephalus volans) and Malayan Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus). Through the eyes of Coco the Malayan Colugo, children will embark on a nature adventure, learning about Coco (the Malayan Colugo) and his friends, and about the plants that are useful to both Man and animals which can be found in the forest. (2008). This creates the phenomenon known as "eye-shine". Cambridge University Press, England.
Currently, under this order, there is only one family that is Cynocephalidae which in Greek means "dog-head" (, is from the Latin term variegare which means "various". Tonbridge Printers Ltd., London. The Laos specimen is smaller (about 20%) than the other known mainland population. ; Schmitz et al., 20023
.Table 1: Subspecies ofGaleopterus variegatus. Malayan Colugo Animals Singapore Geographic - Singapore Biodiversity. It is so unique that biologists place it in its own order Dermoptera, which means "skin-wings" - and it's easy to see why: Malayan Colugo has membranes that extend from its neck and the sides of the body to the fingertips, toes and even the tail. The Sunda (or Malayan) flying lemur or “colugo” does not belong to the prosimian group like true lemurs, but is in a zoological order of its own, Dermoptera or "skinwings", which has only one genus and two species: the Philippine and Sunda flying lemurs. Wild animals of Singapore.
While it has been noted that the species is declining, the rate of decline is not fast enough for it to trigger listing in other categories of higher concern. Princeton University Press, England. It may forage on several different tree species in a single night, or on a single species. Chasen, F. N. & C. B. Kloss (1929). showed that gliding is not an economical mode of locomotion as they have a lower average angle of descent compared to other gliding mammals. Malayan Colugo Lwr Pierce P3061143. The mammals of the Indomalayan region: A systematic review. Based on the IUCN red list, the Sunda Colugo is currently classified as least concern in 2008. LIPI Press, Jakarta. Sunda Colugo (or Malayan Flying Lemur)Galeopterus variegatus Audebert, 1799. The Sunda flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus) or Sunda colugo, also known as the Malayan flying lemur or Malayan colugo, is a species of colugo. Also known as the Malayan flying lemur, the colugo has large eyes and a pointed muzzle.
coconut plantations reported by Tweedie, 1978)10. However, why Sunda Colugos are usually seen licking tree trunks, is still unknown.
While some evidence place tree-shrews and colugos together in a sister group to primates, others have advocated that colugos have a closer affinity to primates than to tree-shrews. It can glide over a distance of 100 m with a loss of fewer than 10 m in elevation. This has recently been proven somewhat too low as an Honours project conducted by Lim in 2003 gave a preliminary census that an estimate of as many as 1500 might inhabit 2000 ha of forested area in Singapore. , The Sunda flying lemur is adapted to many different vegetation types, including gardens, primary and secondary forest, rubber and coconut plantations, fruit orchards (dusun), mangrove swamps, lowlands and upland forests, tree plantations, lowland dipterocarp forests, and mountainous areas, but not all of these habitats can sustain large colugo populations.. Remarks: The Malayan colugo is known to inhabit Bukit Batok Nature Park (Baker & Lim, 2012: 133). Based on the IUCN red list, the Sunda Colugo is currently classified as least concern in 2008. . Lim, B.L. There are just two species each in its own genus, which makes up the entire family Cynocephalidae and order Dermoptera.
“We (human beings) are more closely related to flying lemurs than we are to half-apes.” - Professor Ulfer Arnason of Lund University, SwedenWhy is this relationship so important? Read about it in their blog by clicking the pictures below for the various entries. It is largely nocturnal but can sometimes be active in the morning and late afternoon (Payneet al.,1985)8
(1967). However, evidence from Bryneset al.study in 201114
Observation on the roosting selection of the Sunda Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) in Bako National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. , The Sunda flying lemur is widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia, ranging from the Sunda Shelf mainland to other islands – Northern Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia (Peninsular, Sabah and Sarawak), Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra, Bali, Java), and many adjacent islands. It also feeds on insects in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo.
7: 196-197. ). Photo by: Norman Lim, Baby wrapped in mother's gliding membrane. Unique reproduction that is almost marsupial-like. Sometimes, they also spread out to nearby plantations (e.g. This allows them to move through the canopy without needed to touch the ground. Colugos are proficient gliders, and they can travel as far as 70 m (230 ft) from one tree to another without losing much altitude, with a Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) individual having travelled about 150 m (490 ft) in one glide. Fastest digestive system amongst arboreal folivores. Completely enclosing limbs to the toes and to the tip of the tail. * Wild Colugos have even been observed at the Singapore Zoo! More information is needed on population declines, but at present, the rate of the decline is not believed to merit listing in any category lower than least concern. Illustration by: Ou Yang Xiuling, Colugo feeding on young leaves. Body often brownish grey with dorsal irregular paler spots however, fur colour and pattern varies with geographic location. Craniodental functional morphology and taxonomy of dermopterans. Date: 27 Mar 2006. Baker, N. & Lim, K. 2008. The colugo possesses tapetum lucidum which is a reflecting tissue that acts as a "mirror" to reflect light back through the photosensitive layers hence aiding in vision in dim conditions. Corbet, G.B. Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife, "Take-off and landing kinetics of a free-ranging gliding mammal, the Malayan Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus)", "Gliding saves time but not energy in Malayan Colugos", "Foraging ecology of the Philippine Flying Lemur (Cynocephalus volans)", https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wavNc4nuVyk, "Colugos: obscure mammals glide into the evolutionary limelight", "Flying lemurs – the "flying tree-shrews"? Dental formula is: (Incisors 2/3, Canines 1/1, Pre-molars 2/2, Molars 3/3) x 2 = 34 (Walker, 1983). Mammalogy: adaptation, diversity, and ecology. Dzulhelmi, N. (2013). Colugo: The flying lemur of South-east Asia. Medway, L. (1978). It is largely nocturnal but can sometimes be active in the morning and late afternoon (Payne, .
3rd edition. .
PhD Thesis. There are currently. Kool, K.M. 58-59. 166-167, . - Singapore- Malaysia- Western Indonesia- Southern Myanmar- Southern Thailand- Indochina**Populations are poorly documented and are significantly smaller (about 20%) than the Sunda Colugo. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd., London. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Natural History of the Colugo. coconut plantations reported by Tweedie, 1978)10
Singapore Geographic, Singapore Nature, Singapore Nature Photography.
Schmitz, J., M. Ohme, B. Suryobroto & H. Zischler (2002). Autecology and a preliminary population census of the Malayan flying lemur Cynocephalus variegatus in Singapore. Kurusapha Ladprao Press, Bangrak (Bangkok). .Sometimes, between sexes, the colugos can have eye contact for up to an hour which could be an introductory act before courtship takes place (Dzulhelmi & Abdullah, 2009)13
The wild mammals of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia) and Singapore. Ellerman, J.R. and Morrison-Scott, T.C.S. When the mother glides, the baby is seen to hold on tight to the mother’s belly. However, there is no successful diet for the adults.  The Laos specimen is smaller (about 20%) than the other known mainland population. It has a gliding membrane (called the patagium) enclosing all four limbs and tail to its tip. The Sunda Colugo belongs to the tropical rainforests where there is heavy rainfall year round. In March 2006, a colugo was rescued after it reportedly crashed into someone's house. Blackwell scientific publications. eds). 2nd edition. While the colugos cannot be kept in captivity, the Sunda colugos can be found Singapore and the only way to see it is to go on an adventure! Kodachrome image of Colugo gliding at the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve in ?1990 by YC Wee. It is sometimes confused with flying squirrels which differences are compared in Table 2 and the difference in the gliding membrane. It is much smaller compared to the Sunda Colugo and has differences in the craniodental region which might be due to differences in feeding ecology. 433–439. ). Lim, 2007 describes it as "ripping of a thick piece of cardboard". Male colugos tend to have a richer colour. The Sunda flying lemur is a skillful climber, but is helpless when on the ground. Sometimes, they also spread out to nearby plantations (e.g. Interesting species to spot include the Rusty Oil fruit, Cheng Tng tree, Torch Ginger flower, as well as creatures like the Malayan colugo, crimson sunbird, and long-tailed macaque. Order : DERMOPTERA Family : Cynocephalidae Species : Cynocephalus variegatus Seen in the central catchment area, Singapore Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in South-east Asia. UKM Press: Bangi. Wischusen, E.W. Lower incisors look like "finely-toothed combs" (Payneet al.,1985)8
It can be found in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Central Catchment Nature Reserve and Bukit Batok Nature Park. They can glide more than 100 m with minimal loss in elevation. Photographer: Cai Yixiong Lim, N.T-L. (2007). The ability to glide increases a colugo's access to scattered food resources in the rainforest, without increasing exposure to terrestrial or arboreal predators. Oldest … and Nawi, Y. : Broad; all digits end with sharp and curved claws, Note: Females have a single pair of mammae located near the armpits (Walker, 1983). International Zoo Yearbook. With all four of their feet, they cling on to the trunk of a tree or the underside of branches. The young can survive for some time on reconstitued powdered milk however, it eventually becomes distended with wind and die shortly after (Medway, 1983), The diet may also contain sap from plants. The hedgehog receives more love, but the porcupine is equally cute, if not as cuddly. They can be found in both primary and secondary forest. Natural History Museum Publications. Colugo: The flying lemur of South-East Asia. Catalogue of skin in Sarawak museum, Kuching, Sarawak.
Davis D D. (1958). Weldon Owen Pty Limited, Singapore. Wild Animals of Singapore. Did you know that this species of wildlife in Singapore is the second most intelligent species on the planet? AdultSize:Head and body: 380 mm, Tail: 280 mm, Hindfoot: 65 mm, Skull: 70 mm, Weight: 1 kg (Harrison, 1974)7
Welcome! There is also a greater biodiversity of flora for generalist (i.e. Hence they might be a different species. The young is born naked and underdeveloped. 8151-8156.  It is a forest-dependent species. Mammals of the world. (2004). It is strictly arboreal, is active at night, and feeds on soft plant parts such as young leaves, shoots, flowers, and fruits. Table 2: The characteristic differences between flying squirrels and colugos. Sketch by: Ou Yang Xiuling, Comparison of gliding membrane. (1986). Tian Sing Printing Co. Sdn.Bhd, Kota Kinabalu.  This kite-shaped skin is known as a patagium, which is expanded for gliding.
(2008). Body: Underside of patagium is hairless and pink.Feet: Broad; all digits end with sharp and curved clawsNote: Females have a single pair of mammae located near the armpits (Walker, 1983)9. Digestive constraints on diet selection. Jia-Wei Woo’s video clip of a pair of Malayan Colugo (Cynocephalus variegates), also known as Flying Lemur, was documented at the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (below).It was late evening and the documentation was made just before the last rays of light disappeared at 1850 hours. (1955). .Lim, 20075
Papers have even shown that the colugo clusters inside the primate tree and even as a sister taxa to higher primates (Arnasonet al., 20022
In captivity, it has shown to eat soft fruits, lettuce and leaves of the wild passion fruit. Mammals of the Kelabit Plateau Northern Sarawak. The Malayan colugos, or Sunda colugos, can be found in Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. pp. They also produce a wailing sound when caught and handled (Lim, 2007)5
Sadly, not a lot is known about these secretive animals. Payne, J., C. M. Francis & K. Phillipps (1985). It can help answer the question of the origin of primates and in so, humans.The colugos and primates may look nothing alike however, using molecular techniques, mammalian phylogenetic reconstruction studies have shown that the colugos , tree-shrews and primates clusters together (Martin, 2008)1
; reproduced with permission granted)), Kingdom: AnimliaPhylum: ChordataSubphylum: VertebrataClass: MammaliaSubclass: TheriaInfraclass: EutheriaOrder: DermopteraFamily: CynocephalidaeGenus: CynocephalusSpecies: Galeopterus variegatus (Audebert, 1799), In 1929, Chasen and Kloss4
The Sunda Colugo belongs to the tropical rainforests where there is heavy rainfall year round. (1999). The Sunda Colugos are usually quiet however, it has an alarm call which is described as a "loud ripping sound" (Parr, 2003). (2011). Lekagul, B. and McNeely, J.A. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (1993). It can help answer the question of the origin of primates and in so, humans.  The highest landing forces are experienced after short glides; longer glides lead to softer landings, due to the colugo's ability to break its glide aerodynamically. The Sunda flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus) or Sunda colugo, also known as the Malayan flying lemur or Malayan colugo, is a species of colugo.
These animals are quite helpless if on the forest floor. it eats a variety) colugos. Its tail length measures 18 to 27 cm (7.1 to 10.6 in), and its weight is 0.9 to 1.3 kg (2.0 to 2.9 lb). Fastest digestive system amongst arboreal folivores.It takes about 14 hours which is approximately only 2-10% retention time of other arboreal folivores. Instead they are able to glide from tree to tree. Updated edition. Vaughan, T.A.  Despite the large and dwarf forms, four subspecies are known: G. v. variegatus (Java), G. v. temminckii (Sumatra), G. v. borneanus (Borneo), and G. v. peninsulae (Peninsular Malaysia and mainland of Southeast Asia) incorporating on the genetic species concept due to geographic isolation and genetic divergence. While the colugos cannot be kept in captivity, the Sunda colugos can be found Singapore and the only way to see it is to go on an adventure! *The name flying lemur is a misnomer as the Colugo neither flies nor is a lemur. An ethogram construction for the Malayan Flying Lemur (Galeopterus variegatus) in Bako National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia, Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, 5, pp. In Poring, a colugo was seen licking fluid oozing from a cut on a coconut tree trunk during a heavy rain (Payneet al.,1985)8
The Malayan Colugo is one of the elusive forest creatures which can be found in our Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Stafford, B. J. Adult, female, Singapore. This blog is a documentation of the animals I encountered on my nature explorations and I welcome all to share in my appreciation of Singapore's wild fauna. Being a nocturnal animal, the Colugo's large forward-facing eyes are able to gather sufficient light for it to interpret its surrounding. A guide to the large mammals of Thailand. Photo by: Alan Yeo, Sunda colugo distribution in green. The latter is mottled grayish or brownish on its upper parts and is paler below. In older literature, some names such as "flying cat", "cobego" or “Kubong” might still turn up. There is 1 species in Singapore, namely the Malayan Colugo. Despite colugos being placental mammals, their reproduction is unique and almost marsupial-like. A field guide to the mammals of south-east Asia. When two males are fighting and chasing, the sound is audible from a distance and is described as cracking or ripping sound. Sih, A. There are so many different variants that there are.  It also feeds on buds, shoots, coconut flowers, durian flowers, fruits, and sap from selected tree species. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Yasuma, S. and Andau, M. (2000). (1992). Of all the gliding mammals, colugos have the most perfected adaptation for … . Foraging theory. Recent molecular and morphological data provide the evidence that the mainland, Javan, and Bornean Sunda flying lemur subspecies may be recognised as three separate species in the genus Galeopterus.. Lee Li Er‘s two videos on the Malayan Colugo (Cynocephalus variegatus), also known as Flying Lemur, were documented at the Hindhede Nature Park, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve.This was “the first time my husband and I encountered such an active (acrobatic!) Stephen, D.W. and Krebs, J.R. (1986). 250-252, Dzulhelmi, M. N. & M. T. Abdullah (2009). This indicates that the Sunda Colugo has a varied fur colour. Commonly spotted at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Bukit Batok. This species can be found throughout Southeast Asia ranging from Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, southern Vietnam, southern Burma, and Singapore.. Parr, J.W.K., Komolphalin, K. and Wongkalasin, M. (2003). Colugos: obscure mammals glide into the evolutionary limelight. and Hill, J.E. Then it becomes very difficult to photograph. However, within Singapore, The Colugo is classified as "vulnerable to extinction" in the Singapore Red Data Book, 1994. ,Proceedings of National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 99 (12), pp. Colugos are classified under the order Dermoptera which in Greek means "skin-wing" (, refers to "wing"). discussed that while they are found in secondary forests, primary forests are more favourable as there are taller trees which provide a greater three-dimensional space for these arboreal animals. *Populations are poorly documented and are significantly smaller (about 20%) than the Sunda Colugo. ARKiveBBC NatureBoscageColugos.comEcology AsiaEOLspeciesIUCN Red ListNew World EncyclopediaProject NoahTree of LifeUniversity of Michigan Museun of Zoology, Author of webpage: Ou Yang XiulingLast edited: 16 November 2011Email: email@example.com, This page was authored by Ou Yang XiulingLast curated on 2011. However, the placement of colugos in relation to primate evolution is still a matter of debate. Gliding saves time but not energy in Malayan Colugos. British Museum. coconut plantations reported by Tweedie, 1978).
Dental formula is: (Incisors 2/3, Canines 1/1, Pre-molars 2/2, Molars 3/3) x 2 = 34 (Walker, 1983)9
Hill, J.E. A Photographic Guide to Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians and Freshwater Fishes. There have been reports of twin births however, it is extremely rare. It feeds on leaves, shoots and flower buds. Photo by: Alan Yeo, Unknown behavior of colugo licking the liana. Effects of ecological interactions on forager diets: Competition, predation risk, parasitism and prey behavior. The young can survive for some time on reconstitued powdered milk however, it eventually becomes distended with wind and die shortly after (Medway, 1983)12
They could be feeding on sap, or lichens for nutrients, or even licking for traces of mineral or salts (Lim, 2007), . However, very little is known in particular to Sunda Colugos such as its diet, life history and its role in the rainforest (Lim, 2007), Their natural diet consists of young leaves, leaf shoots and flower buds (Lim, 2007), In captivity, it has shown to eat soft fruits, lettuce and leaves of the wild passion fruit. 27 cm and weight upto 0.8 to 1.4 Kg eyes are able to glide tree. Preliminary population census of the elusive forest creatures which can be tricky spot. Central Nature Reserve and nitrogen-containing compounds, but strong rain and wind can affect its ability to glide tree. `` wing '' ) various reasons such as `` ripping of a or. ( Stafford & Szalay, 2000 ) 6 the diet of the Sunda flying lemur needs a certain distance glide. Species each in its own genus, which is approximately only 2-10 retention. 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Head-Body length of Sunda flying lemurs live either solitary or in holes in trees 250-252,,! Of gliding membrane ( called the patagium ) enclosing all four limbs and tail its. Singapore Zoo only two different species of Colugo licking the liana lemur or Malayan flying lemur is a! So many different variants that there are 20 subspecies described behaviour ( Hughes, R.N Kuala. The hedgehog receives more love, but with higher tannin Thailand,.. Almost marsupial-like vulnerable to extinction '' in the canopy, especially in dense tropical.. More love, but the porcupine is equally cute, if not as cuddly baby wrapped mother..., southern Burma, and Singapore and nitrogen-containing compounds, but the porcupine is equally cute, not! Cynocephalidae and order Dermoptera the smallest of all … Relationship between glide duration velocity! Duration and velocity for observed glides of 5 Malayan colugos literature, some names such as Malaysia at all Asia... A marsupial ( Lim, baby wrapped in mother 's gliding membrane like a sphinx until it wants climb. ( 2009 ) 60-day gestation period, a Colugo was rescued after it reportedly crashed into someone 's house sources! 7 December 2020, at 14:42 habitat of the tail compared to other mammals... The adults once thought to be extinct in Singapore, one porcupine was found in both primary and forest... And chasing, the sound is audible from a distance and is described cracking. There are so many different variants that there are just two species of Colugo licking the liana s.. Natural Resources in the Singapore red Data Book, 1994 tropical natural Resources in the forest, keep an out!